Nutritional genomics or Nutrigenomics is a new science studying the relationship between human genome, nutrition and health
97% of the genes known to be associated with human diseases result in monogenic diseases, i.e. a mutation in one gene is sufficient to cause the disease
Modifying the dietary intake can prevent some monogenic diseases
Can eating broccoli prevent cancer? This could actually benefit carriers of the gene like GSTM1, but not others …
Carries of CYP1A2 gene could be at higher risk of a heart attack if they consume a considerable amount of caffeine
Studies have shown that the NAT2 acetylator genotype had a higher risk of developing colon cancer in people who consumed relatively large quantities of red meat
Consider #Coffee : A number of studies offer evidence that drinking java lowers heart-disease risk, most likely as a result of antioxidants and other beneficial compounds in coffee beans. But a few studies show heavy coffee drinkers having a higher than average risk of heart disease—leaving scientists scratching their heads. Nutrigenomics suggests an explanation. In people with the genetic variant that causes sluggish metabolism of caffeine, the stimulant sticks around in the bloodstream longer than usual, where it may disrupt normal heart rhythms and boost blood pressure, overwhelming any benefit. Quick metabolizers, on the other hand, clear the caffeine fast from their bloodstreams but still enjoy the benefits.
Type 2 #Diabetes offers another example. Several studies suggest eating too much #sugar and refined carbohydrates—foods linked with big jumps in blood sugar—can lead to type 2 diabetes. But when researchers look at large groups of subjects, no clear link emerges. The reason may be that only some people are #genetically sensitive to the effects of these foods on blood sugar.
#Cholesterol : Can nutrigenomics explain why some people’s cholesterol levels respond to a healthy diet and others’ don’t? Here, too, there are plenty of clues. Scientists have detected one gene variation that seems to enhance the health benefits of polyunsaturated fats, for example, giving people who possess it a bigger boost in good cholesterol when they eat a diet rich in plant oils. Another appears to make bad-cholesterol levels more likely to soar when people eat a high-fat diet. “Variants in a gene called APOE, which controls cholesterol metabolism, seem to be especially important,” Ordovas told me. People with one genetic pattern see a big drop in cholesterol levels when they switch to a healthier diet. Those with a slightly different pattern get almost no benefit at all.
A study conducted at Stanford University looked at the long-term effects of #weightloss using a few different diets assigned at random. Results showed that some participants lost weight on one type of #diet such as low-fat, while others did not. The study then tested participants’ #DNA for 3 specific gene variations and found that those using the best diet for their DNA lost as much as 2 1/2 times more weight than those not using their best DNA diet.
“It makes sense because our genes control hormone levels, enzyme levels – all the basic levels of #metabolism . And how we metabolize food determines what happens to the nutrients and calories we take in” – ays David Katz, MD, nutrition expert and founder of the Yale Prevention Center
Many common diseases, such as #obesity #cancer #diabetes and #cardiovascular diseases, are #polygenic diseases, i.e. they arise from the dysfunction in a cascade of genes, and not from a single mutated gene. Dietary intervention to prevent the onset of such diseases is a complex and ambitious goal
Information credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutrigenomics; MyDietClinic, http://www.doctoroz.com/article/exploring-perfect-diet-your-genes?page=3; http://www.eatingwell.com/nutrition_health/nutrition_news_information/how_to_eat_for_your_dna