La’au Lapa’au | A Summer Herb: Ground Ivy {Glechoma hederacea}

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Also, Known As:

  • Alehoof
  • Cat’s-foot
  • Creeping Charlie
  • Field Balm
  • Gill Run Over
  • Ground Ivy
  • Haymaids
  • Hedge Maid
  • Wild Snakeroot

Ground ivy is a herb-like plant that grows perennially up to a height of 8 inches to 20 inches (20 cm to 50 cm) and has a square stem that produces circular, having well-serrated leaves. The flowers of this herb have a purple-blue hue, which has the propensity to become pale mauve. This is primarily owing to the fact because the blossoming may endure for three months or even more – which is basically extraordinary for any wildflower. The leaves emit a camphor smell having an essence of peppermint and citronella.

There was a time when ground ivy was very well accepted for its therapeutic as well as culinary properties. However, currently, homeowners consider this plant bearing violet-blue blooms as a weed since it invades the lawns. Even herbalists practically neglect…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Peppermint

The Wonky Pot Apothecary



Botanical Name: Mentha x piperita.


All true mints belong to the genus Mentha. Peppermint is a hybrid plant, a cross between watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). 

Common Names: Peppermint, mint, menthol

Habitat: Peppermint is found growing wild in the moist soils of the warmer parts of Europe, Asia, and America. It was cultivated in Europe but also in America, where it has become a vital crop over the last one hundred years. Peppermint is a perennial shrub which grows best in very moist soils with high water-holding capacity. While the plant has proved invaluable in medicine, for both topical and oral uses, it is also used widely in the perfume, soap and of course the food industries, becoming the most commercially important of the Mentha species. It has a fresh odor and a persistent cooling…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Powerful Herbal Pain Relief

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

A few days ago, I had the pleasure of visiting the home of a gracious woman who deals in antiques. As I admired the many fine pieces displayed there, I came to realize that I, too, am something of a period piece a baby boomer who’s fundamentally sound but sporting the odd creaky hinge or two.
Fortunately, the herbal apothecary holds promise. Its medicines are good alternatives to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for chronic, mild to moderate aches and can reduce the need for prescription drugs.
More than 100 plants are known to have pain-relieving properties, but some are really outstanding. Reporting on herbal painkillers for arthritis, a review of clinical trials in the Clinical Journal of Pain says devil’s claw {Harpagophytum procumbens}, capsaicin from hot chiles {Capsicum spp.}, gamma-linolenic acid {GLA} from seed oils, and certain blended herbal extracts are especially good. Other studies indicate broader pain-relieving…

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Reiki | It’s All About The Attitude Of Gratitude

Gratitude. Appreciation. Giving thanks. No matter what words you use it all means the same thing. Happy. We’re supposed to be happy … grateful for friends, family … happy to just be alive. Maybe we’re not supposed to be happy. Maybe gratitude has nothing to do with joy. Maybe being grateful means recognizing what you have for what it is, admiring the struggle it takes simply to be human. Maybe we’re thankful for the familiar things we know … and maybe we’re thankful for the things we’ll never know. At the end of the day, the fact that we have the courage to still be standing is reason enough to celebrate.

Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Nettle

The Wonky Pot Apothecary



Botanical Name: Urtica dioica, Urtica galeopsifolia. The annual nettle species dwarf nettle (Urtica urens L.) can be used in a similar manner as the stinging nettle in herbal medicine.

Family Urticaceae

Other Common Names of Stinging Nettle: Big string nettle, common nettle, Nettle, devil’s leaf, European nettle, Grosse Brennesse (German), grande ortie (French), ortiga (Spanish), brenninetla (Icelandic), brænde nælde (Danish).

TCM Name: Xun Ma

Meridians: Lung, Liver, Kidney

Key TCM Actions & Medicinal Uses: Tonifies the Lungs/Treats Skin: eczema, congested lungs, coughs, asthma, shingles. Purifies Blood: cleanses the Blood from environmental toxins and toxins in food.  Drains Phlegm/Astringing; urinary tract infections, allergy congestion, gout, edema. Builds Blood/Enriches Kidney and Liver Yin: hot flashes, night sweats, dry skin, dull hair, brittle nails, regulate menses. Stops Bleeding: hemorrhage, post partum bleeding, heavy menses. Regulates Metabolism: improves stamina, poor appetite, improves lactation.

Habitat: While originally from the cold…

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Angel Wisdom | For June 13, 2018

Respect the beauty and vastness of the universe, remember that there is always something more to learn and be humble before the vastness of universal wisdom.  The angels want to remind you that it is never too late to start studying, get a new qualification, or get more deeply involved in some area, so perhaps now is the time to apply for a Master’s degree, specialization or directly a whole new education in the field that is of interest to you.  Also, the angels would like t mention again that knowledge and wisdom are two different things.  In order to be able to call yourself a wise person, apart from the purely rational knowledge and logic, it is also necessary to refract everything through your own life experiences, emotional intelligence and steady value system.

If you’re wondering about some important issue, this message is a clear sign that you have been given the necessary wisdom to make the right decision, or that you have a very wise person next to you who’s ready to give you the right advice … so do not hesitate.

Contemplations …

Life … there’s another way to survive this competition, a way no one seems to tell you about … one you have to learn for yourself. It’s not about the race, at all. There are no winners or losers. Victories are counted by the number of lives you save. And, once in a while … if you’re smart … a life you save could be your own. Life was surely made for fools like me.

Intimacy is a four-syllable word for “here are my heart and soul; please grind them into hamburger, and enjoy!” It’s both desired, and feared. Difficult to live with and impossible to live without. Intimacy also comes attached to life’s Three R’s: Relatives, Romance and Roommates. There are some things you can’t escape, and others you just don’t want to know. I wish there were a rule book for intimacy. Some kind of a guide that can tell you when you’ve crossed the line. It would be nice if you could see it coming, but I don’t know how you could fit it on a map. You take it where you can get it and keep it as long as you can. And, as for rules, maybe there are none. Maybe the rules of intimacy are something you’ve got to define for yourself.

Remember when you were a kid, and your biggest worry was if you’d get a bike for your birthday, or, if you’d get to eat cookies for breakfast. Being an adult? Totally overrated. I mean, seriously. Don’t be fooled by all the hot shoes, and the great sex, and the no-parents-anywhere-telling-you-what-to-do. Adulthood is a great responsibility. Responsibility? It really does suck … it really, really sucks. Adults have to be places, and do things, and earn a living and pay the rent. Hello!? Talk about responsibility! It all kinda makes just wanting bikes and cookies look really, really good. The scariest part of responsibility: when you screw up and let it slip right through your fingers. Responsibility: it really does suck. Unfortunately, once you get past the ages of braces and training bras, responsibility doesn’t go away. It can’t be avoided. Either someone makes us face it, or we suffer the consequences. And still, adulthood has its perks. I mean … the shoes, the sex, the no-parents-anywhere-telling-you-what-to-do … that’s pretty damn good.

Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Natural Eye Care

The Wonky Pot Apothecary

Natural Eye Care…. Where do I begin….. The Skin around the eyes is only about 0.04mm thick, where as by comparison over the rest of the body its generally about 0.1mm thick and at its thickest on the feet. So putting anything on or around the eyes has to be done delicately. Over the years that i have been making skincare, i have made numerous products for eye care, from a soothing gel for Dry Eyes, an Eye oil in a roller ball to an eye cream all of which have helped numerous amounts of people. So below i thought i would talk about some other conditions, which can make the eyes uncomfortable.

Puffiness: Under eye puffiness can be caused by a variety of reason, Diet, Allergies or extra fluid in your system. To treat Morning puffiness, splash your face with very cold water, then with a very light touch…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Administration and Dosing of Medical Cannabis

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Despite centuries of medical use and several modern studies, 80 years of cannabis (Cannabis sativa, Cannabaceae) prohibition have left clinicians undereducated about its therapeutic uses. A 2017 US study found that 89.5% of surveyed residents and fellows felt unprepared to prescribe cannabis and just 35.5% felt prepared to answer patients’ questions about it. Only 9% of US medical schools include clinical cannabis content in curricula.* While there is a lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in cannabis therapeutics, researchers and caregivers are recognizing RCTs’ limitations in applicability to individual patients, who may be better served by individualized evidence-based practices. Cannabis’ effects vary depending on many factors. It is desirable to find a “sweet spot” of dosing that provides symptom relief without adverse effects (AEs) like unwanted euphoria. The authors combine a review of the literature and their own clinical observations to offer guidance on Good Clinical Practices (GCPs)…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Bergamot

The Wonky Pot Apothecary



Botanical Name Citrus Bergamia.  

Common Name Bergamot Orange, Bergamott (Swedish), Bergamottorange (Danish), Bergamotte, (German), Bergamotier (French).

Family Name Rutaceae

Ayurvedic/ Tcm Name: Fo Shou Gan

Meridians: Liver, Spleen, Stomach, Heart

Key TCM Actions & Medicinal Uses: Liver and Spleen Qi Stagnation/Moves Qi: digestive disorders, gas, depression, emptiness, grief, nausea, bloating, loss of appetite, vomiting. Lifts and Harmonizes Qi/Calms Shen: mental fatigue, depression, insomnia, anxiety, mood swings.

Parts Used The Essential Oil, Which Is A Light Yellow Or Pale Green Liquid With An Extremely Rich, Sweet And Fruity Taste.

Native Region The Plant Is Endemic To Tropical Southeast Asia. Today It Is Cultivated In Many Subtropical Areas Around The World, Especially In Southern Italy And The Ivory Coast.

Botanical Description Bergamot Is A Small Tree Of The Rutaceae Family (The Rue Or Citrus Family). It Can Grow Up To 4.5 M High And Has Smooth, Oval Leaves And…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Health Benefits of Reishi {Ganoderma lucidum}

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Also, Known As:

  • Ling Chi
  • Ling Zhi
  • Reishi

Known in Japan as the ‘phantom mushroom’ because it can be so very difficult to find, the reishi generally grows on old Japanese plum trees. Reishi is so rare that only about 10 mushrooms would be found growing on about 100,000 plum trees. Finally, it was the Japanese Shigeaki Mori who perfected the art of growing the reishi indoors. This art involved culturing wild reishi spores on plum-tree sawdust over an elaborate and arduous two-year time period. The fruiting body of the reishi can be used medicinally.

Also popularly known as the hing zhi “herb of spiritual potency”, the reishi is, in essence, a mushroom that can grow on old rotten logs, fallen tree stumps and other similar areas throughout the coastal regions of China. However, reishi is cultivated in areas as diverse as North America, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, and China for…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Harvesting Herbs

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Whether you are collecting the flowers, leaves or stems, you should always harvest them on a sunlit day and only when the dew has dispersed from the plants and prior to the garden being filled with the day’s full heat. In case the plants contain volatile oils, for instance, lemon balm and mints, it is best to harvest them immediately prior to noon. This is because the oils get enough time to move to the leaves, but they have not been evaporated by the heat of the day. As it has been found that rain sweeps away some amount of the aromatic volatile oils, it is advisable that you should wait for at least one day after a rainstorm and then harvest the leaves. Preferably, you should wait for two to three days prior to harvesting, as this will give the plants sufficient time to gather their essential oils.


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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | What Is Oats {Avena sativa}

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Also, Known As:

  • Avena Sativa
  • Common Oats
  • Groats
  • Oats
  • Wild Oats

The plant-based cereals called the oats – botanical name: Avena sativa – is a very nutritious food and remedy. The oat is rich in protein, has lots of beneficial minerals such as calcium and magnesium, trace elements and potassium as well as iron – while also being very high in vitamin content. The presence of these bodybuilding nutrients in the oats makes for strong bones and teeth, most of these vital minerals found in the oats are also necessary for the maintenance of a healthy nervous system in a human being. Remedies made from the oats were traditionally used as a herbal nerve tonic; this tonic was given to patients to treat problems like depression, and mental debility as well as nervous exhaustion. Eating oats is a very good remedy when withdrawing from the effects of tranquilizers and antidepressant medications. The oats not only stimulates the body but also boosts energy levels up…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | What Is Horsetail {Equisetum arvense}

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Also, Known As:

  • Bottlebrush
  • Horsetail
  • Mare’s Tail
  • Scouring Rush
  • Shave Grass

Horsetail is a well-known herb; it is a perennial herb growing in moist loamy or sandy soil found in much of the North American continent, as well as in similar climates in Europe and Asia. The morphology of the horsetail herb is very strange and the plant has a creeping or string-like root name. The roots at the nodes are turned into numerous hollow stems of two kinds. Horsetail begins growth in two stages, initial growth of the plant is through a fertile and flesh-colored stem, this stem can grow to a height of four to seven inches and comes out a cone like a spike – this spike contains spores of the plant. The initial stem does not last long and withers away. The second stem is a green and sterile structure reaching a length of eighteen inches in height…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | What Is Licorice Root?

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Glycyrrhiza glabra

Also, Known As:

  • Chinese Licorice
  • Gan Cao
  • Kan-ts’ao
  • Kuo-lao
  • Licorice
  • Licorice Root
  • Ling-t’ung
  • Liquorice
  • Mei-ts’ao
  • Mi-kan
  • Mi-ts’ao
  • Sweet Licorice
  • Sweet Wood
  • Yasti Madhu

Licorice refers to the roots and rhizome of a variety of plants belonging to the species Glycyrrhiza glabra L. of the family Fabaceae. This is a European species and possesses a sweet yellow wood. There are also Asian species of the plant like Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. and others. In the commercially available licorice in the US markets, all these species are included since a significant part of licorice is imported from China and other Asian countries.

licorice root plant
The herb has expectorant and demulcent properties and has been used traditionally in the treatment of common cold and coughs. The medication is commonly called licorice root or Glycyrrhiza and has also been in use as a flavoring agent. Licorice has been popular for long, in many parts of the…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Your Apothecary Cabinet: The Healing Properties Of Herbs

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

There have been lots of pharmaceutical studies to evaluate the active elements present in herbs to discover the reason as well as the manner in which they work. A relatively outmoded method is to classify the herbs by exploring the types of health conditions that they can aid in curing. Identifying the actions of the herbs and the manner in which they may be employed together forms the basis of a comprehensive approach.

For example, in a number of instances, the action of herbs is owing to certain chemical or a blend of chemicals present in them – the sedative herb valerian is a perfect example of this. Alternatively, the action may also be owing to a multifaceted synergetic interaction between the different elements of the herbs. Nevertheless, the best way to comprehend the actions of the herbs is to consider them as characteristics all together and to interpret the chemical…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | What Is Elecampane?

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Inula helenium

Also, Known As

  • Elecampane
  • Horseheal
  • Scabwort

Elecampane (botanical name Inula helenium) is a tall, bristly perennial plant that is native to south-eastern Europe and western Asia. This herb, which bears yellow flowers resembling the daisy, has been naturalized in North America and is found growing in abundance in the moist meadows, fields and along the roads in the central and eastern regions of the United States and neighboring Canada. Elecampane belongs to the Asteraceae family and grows up to a height of four to six feet. The herb has a heavy branching stem that emerges from a basal rosette (a circular arrangement of leaves at the base) with leaves that are large, oval-shaped and pointed at the end. The herb bears vivid yellow flower heads during the period between the middle to the end of the summer. The flower heads of elecampane are generally four inches in diameter…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Amazing Benefits of Ashwagandha Root for Women

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Ashwagandha, also known as Indian ginseng, is an Ayurvedic herb commonly used in traditional Indian medicine. Investigations into the herb’s powerful effects on the body have sparked an explosion of interest, and research has reported the exciting potential for human health, specifically its effects on mental, physical, and emotional health.

Benefits of Ashwagandha Root

Ashwagandha may enhance energy, support aging, and stimulate sex drive. Here are 7 benefits women may experience with ashwagandha.

1. Promotes Graceful Aging

Stress, both metabolic and emotional, dramatically affects aging. Cortisol, the body’s stress hormone, contributes to muscle loss and weakness, wrinkles, and cognitive impairment. Research has found that ashwagandha improves resistance to stress, possibly decreasing cortisol production. One study of 64 individuals observed a reduction in stress and a significant decrease in cortisol levels in individuals taking ashwagandha compared with placebo.

2. Menopausal Support

Ashwagandha acts on the endocrine system by encouraging hormone balance. A study involving…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Ashwagandha Root Extract Improves Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Patients Taking Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

  • Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, Solanaceae)

  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), characterized by stressful, repetitive, and intrusive thoughts or obsessions followed by actions or compulsions, is thought to be linked to a defect in the serotonergic system. A common treatment is the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), but they are considered only mildly effective, with 40-60% of patients failing to respond. In Ayurvedic herbal medicine, ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, Solanaceae) is considered to be a rejuvenating and revitalizing herb. Its roots, which are used to enhance mental and physical health, have anxiolytic and antidepressant properties due to the presence of bioactive glycowithanolides, and the alkaloids withanine and somniferine are used for nervous disorders. Animal studies also have shown it to enhance serotonergic transmission. The goal of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to verify the efficacy of ashwagandha root extract as an adjunct therapy to treat the…

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Lāʻau Lapaʻau | Scarlett Pimpernel

The Wonky Pot Apothecary

(This flower is no longer used due to its toxicity)

Scarlett Pimpernel

Scarlet Pimpernel

Botanical Name: Anagallis arvensis.

The Genus name Anagallis derives from the Greek word “anagelas”, meaning “to laugh” and probably stems from the notion of the past ages that the herb could boost mood and relieve depression.

Common Names: Red pimpernel, pimpernel, red chickweed, poor man’s weatherglass, bird’s-eye, nonsblom (Norwegian), murajes (Spanish), mouron des champs (French), Acker-Gauchheil (German), nónblóm (Icelandic), puna-alpi (Finnish), rödmire (Swedish), rød arve (Danish).

Family Name: Primulaceae

Habitat: Scarlet pimpernel is most likely native to the Mediterranean region, but has now been introduced to most parts of the world with a temperate climate. It prefers relatively sandy soil and can not tolerate shade very well. The species is spread by agricultural farming and occurs primarily as a weed in farmlands, fields, and gardens. It can also be found growing in fallow land, along…

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Lāʻau Lāpaʻau | Your Apothecary Cabinet: Herbal First Aid Kit…

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Being prepared with my favorite remedies gives me peace of mind on the road or trail, and keeps me from having to search out herbal products in an unfamiliar town — or from having to resort to padding my heels with mullein leaves to ease the agony of a broken blister while on a backpacking trip.

I’ve had plenty of opportunities to put my first-aid kit to use, from treating blisters and bug bites to motion sickness and colds. I choose simple, multipurpose remedies and store them in a small padded nylon lunch box that’s always ready to toss into the car. For backpacking trips, I pare my kit down to arnica gel, echinacea, peppermint and chamomile tea bags, crystallized ginger, insect repellant, a tin of herbal salve, a tiny bottle of lavender essential oil, and an assortment of bandages and moleskin.

With the following herbs and essential oils, you…

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Lāʻau Lāpaʻau | Your Apothecary Cabinet: Common Base Oils

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Vegetable and herbal oil are used in creams, lotions, massage, facial and body oils, gels, and salves.

Sweet Almond (Prunus amygdalis var. dulcis) and Apricot Kernel (Prunus armeniaca): emollients, can relieve itchiness and dryness.

Arnica ( Arnica montana ): indicated for bruises, varicose veins, burns, strains and sprains, arthritis, and myalgia.
Avocado ( Persea Americana ): wonderful oil for regenerative skin care, indicated for dry, itchy, or mature skin, antioxidant, nourishes the skin.
Baobab ( Adansonia digitata ) and Marula ( Scelerocara birrea ): emollient, soothes inflamed skin, dry skin, sunburn.
Borage ( Borago officinalis ) and Evening Primrose ( Oenothera biennis ): excellent regenerative skin care oils, nourishing, indicated for psoriasis, eczema, inflamed and dry skin conditions.
Calendula ( Calendula officinalis ): anti-inflammatory, wound healing, soothes dry irritated skin, insect bites, cell regenerative.
Coconut ( Cocos nucifera ): emollient, slightly occlusive to the skin, blend…

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Lāʻau Lāpaʻau | Your Apothecary Cabinet: Herbal Oils

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Herbal oils are simply oils infused with herbs, much as you would steep rosemary in olive oil for culinary purposes. Healing herbal oils can be taken internally for a variety of ailments, can be used externally for therapeutic or daily beauty routines, and can be incorporated into herbal salve recipes. Dried herbs are preferred since fresh herbs will sometimes ferment.

Basic Herbal Oil:

1 cup finely ground dried herbs {flowers, leaves, roots, barks, and/or seeds}

1 1/4 cups almond, jojoba, or olive oil

In a blender or food processor, combine the herbs and oil. Blend or process until puree for greater extractability. Pour the mixture into a clean glass jar with a lid, making sure the plant material is completely submerged in the oil. If it’s not, add more oil until the herbs are covered by about 1 inch of liquid. Cover the jar and store it in a dark…

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Lāʻau Lāpaʻau | Hemp Agrimony

The Wonky Pot Apothecary

Hemp Agrimony

Hemp Agrimony

Botanical Name: Eupatorium cannabinum L.

The genus name Eupatorium can be traced back to the ancient Greek king Mithridates Eupator (120-63 BC), who apparently was the first to use species in this genus as a medicine. The species name cannabinum is only due to the resemblance the leaves have to hemp leaf (Cannabis sativa) because those two plant species, in fact, are not related.

Other Common Names: Common hemp agrimony, water agrimony, common Dutch agrimony, St. John’s herb, water maudlin, gravel root, sweet-smelling trefoil, holy rope.

Family Name Compositae

Habitat: The plant is found wild in most parts of Europe, but it is also found in West Asia and North Africa. It grows in moist woodlands, fens, marshes and along rivers and canals.

Description: Hemp agrimony is a perennial plant of the Asteraceae family. It can grow up to one and a half…

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Lāʻau Lāpaʻau | Know Your Underground Roots

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

Underground Stems

The underground stems, by being situated below the surface of the soil, protect themselves against unfavorable conditions of weather and the attack of animals and serve as storehouses for reserve food, and in vegetative propagation. Their stem nature can be distinguished by the presence of nodes and internodes, scale leaves at the nodes, axillary buds in axils of scale leaves and a terminal bud. Further, the anatomy of the underground stem resembles that of an aerial stem. The underground stems are of four types namely rhizome, tuber, bulb, and corm.


A rhizome is a thick horizontally growing stem which usually stores food material. It has nodes and internodes, scale leaves, axillary buds, adventitious roots and a terminal bud. Scale leaves enclosing the axillary buds are seen arising from the nodal points of the stem. Some of the axillary buds develop into branches which grow upwards into the…

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Lāʻau Lāpaʻau | Know Your Herbal Chemistry

Crooked Bear Creek Organic Herbs

A herbalist should be fully aware of details about the pharmacology of herbs, a basic understanding of it is more than enough. Herbs are used for healing the human body, they are considered to be holistic agents, and they are used on a physical and biochemistry level. Many pharmacologists try to find out the constituents of herbs, place them according to their chemical groups and have done numerous research and have found herbs to be very complex in their characteristics. Herbs contain a huge variety of chemicals like water, inorganic salt, sugars, carbohydrates, proteins that are highly complex, and alkaloids.

Plant Acids:

An example of weak organic acids is generally found among plants, lemon is the perfect example of citric acid. Organic acids can be split into those based on a carbon chain, and those, which contain a carbon ring in their configuration, but what both have in common is the…

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